A Design must be novel and in its character differ sufficiently from existing creations in respect of essential aspects (Art. 2 of the Design Act). Design protection does not cover production methods, practical purposes, or technical functions; these can, if required, be protected by an invention patent. Moreover, there must be no absolute causes for exclusion (e.g. infringement of Federal laws or of treaties, offence of public order, immorality), and the characteristics of the Design must not be solely based on the technical function of the product (Art. 4 of the Design Act).